Mast cell tumors are a cause for concern when it comes to your feline friend’s health. These tumors, originating from mast cells found throughout the body, can have serious implications. Let’s dive into the world of mast cell tumors in cats and explore their impact.
Understanding Mast Cell Tumors in Cats
Mast cells play a vital role in the immune system, containing histamine to combat perceived allergens. However, when exposed to excessive allergens, mast cells release an overwhelming amount of histamine, leading to severe allergic reactions. Mast cell tumors (MCTs) arise when these cells rapidly divide and replicate in the tissue, growing slowly over time or seemingly overnight.
In cats, MCTs are commonly found on the skin, particularly on the head and neck. However, they can appear anywhere on the body. These tumors can also develop on the spleen or within the intestinal tract. While cutaneous MCTs are the second most common type of skin tumor in cats, the tumors affecting internal organs tend to be more malignant.
Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Tumors
Understanding the nature of mast cell tumors is crucial. Benign tumors do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They are slow-growing and generally have a favorable prognosis. On the other hand, malignant tumors are cancerous, comprised of rapidly dividing abnormal cells. These tumors readily invade surrounding tissues and can spread through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The prognosis for malignant tumors is typically poor.
It’s important to note that determining whether a mast cell tumor is benign or malignant depends on the characteristics of the cells and their location. Skin-based tumors are more likely to be benign, while tumors affecting internal organs tend to be malignant.
Recognizing the Symptoms
Clinical signs and symptoms of mast cell tumors vary depending on the tumor’s location and aggressiveness. For example:
- Hard, hairless, flattened bumps (plaques) commonly found on the head and neck
- Small, firm lumps (nodules) within the skin
- Excessive itchiness, resulting in hair loss
- Ulceration (open sores)
Splenic or Visceral MCTs:
- Weight loss
- Poor appetite
- Vomiting and diarrhea
- Fresh blood in the stool
- Black or tarry stool, indicating digested blood
Exploring the Causes
While the exact cause of mast cell tumors remains unknown, genetics and environmental factors are thought to play a role. For instance, Siamese cats are more prone to developing cutaneous mast cell tumors. Additionally, a mutation in a specific gene, known as KIT, has been associated with mast cell tumors in both cats and dogs.
Diagnosis by Veterinary Professionals
Veterinarians can diagnose mast cell tumors through a procedure called fine needle aspiration (FNA). This involves inserting a needle into the tumor and retrieving a cell sample for examination under a microscope. Mast cells have distinctive characteristics, making diagnosis through cytology relatively straightforward.
In some cases, a biopsy of the tumor may be recommended. This allows for a more detailed examination of the cells, determining the tumor type, aggressiveness, and the possibility of clean surgical margins. Additional diagnostic tests, such as lab work and imaging, may also be employed to evaluate the stage of the disease and plan the best treatment protocol.
The treatment for mast cell tumors depends on the tumor’s location and invasiveness. Surgical removal is the recommended approach for cutaneous mast cell tumors. However, complete removal may not always be possible for splenic and intestinal tumors, potentially leaving cancerous cells behind. In these cases, alternative treatments like chemotherapy or radiation may be suggested, often requiring a referral to a veterinary oncologist.
To avoid negative side effects during treatment, veterinarians may prescribe medications to counter the systemic symptoms caused by the release of histamine when tumors are pierced or ruptured. Antihistamines, antacids, anti-nausea drugs, and pain medication are among the commonly prescribed options.
Recovery and Management
Cats with cutaneous mast cell tumors typically go on to live healthy lives, with rare recurrence unless inadequate surgical margins were obtained. However, cats with splenic or intestinal mast cell tumors have a poor prognosis due to their malignant nature and propensity for spreading. In such cases, daily medications may be recommended to manage systemic illness and improve quality of life.
After surgery, it is crucial to follow your veterinarian’s instructions. An E-collar (recovery cone) may be necessary to prevent any self-inflicted harm to the surgical site. Keeping the area clean and dry is essential, along with limiting your cat’s activity for a minimum of 10-14 days to aid in proper wound healing. If you have any concerns during your cat’s recovery, promptly seek advice from your veterinary clinic.
Mention Katten TrimSalon to get expert advice on managing and treating mast cell tumors in cats. Your furry friend’s well-being is our top priority!
Featured Image: iStock/ardaayderman